Transportation in Philadelphia

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Benjamin Franklin Bridge, once the world's longest suspension span, connects Philadelphia with Camden, New Jersey.

Transportation in Philadelphia involves the various modes of transport within the city and its required infrastructure. In addition to facilitating intracity travel, Philadelphia's transportation system connects Philadelphia to towns of its metropolitan area and surrounding areas within the Northeast megalopolis.

The city is crossed by the Delaware Expressway (Interstate 95 or I-95) and the Schuylkill Expressway (I-76), which are the principal thoroughfares for intercity traffic. The Vine Street Expressway (I-676) travels between I-76 and I-95 in Center City Philadelphia, and the Roosevelt Boulevard (U.S. Route 1) carries crosstown traffic in northern Philadelphia.

Philadelphia's public transit system is mainly operated by SEPTA, which maintains an extensive system utilizing buses, rapid transit, commuter rail, trolleys, and the Philadelphia trackless trolley (trolleybus) system. The main rail station of Philadelphia is 30th Street Station, which has access to 13 SEPTA Regional Rail routes and 11 Amtrak intercity rail routes. Philadelphia International Airport, the primary airport of Philadelphia, is a hub for domestic and international aviation.



Thomas Holme's A Portraiture of Philadelphia, published in 1682, displays the rectilinear grid layout of Philadelphia's streets

The streets of Philadelphia mainly follow a grid plan, one of the first such lay-outs used in a North American city. The grid plan originated in 1682, when William Penn founded Philadelphia and appointed Thomas Holme as his surveyor. Using 1,200 acres (4.9 km2),[1] Penn planned a system of organized streets to facilitate future growth. Since Penn survived the Great Fire of London and wanted to avoid similar catastrophes, he laid out streets wider than usual.[1] Penn planned the city to stretch between the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, and his grid plan of present-day Center City followed a 22-by-8-block pattern.[1] The plan included a large square in the center of the town (present day location of Philadelphia City Hall), and four public squares near each corner of the city.[1]

Since the initial grid covered only the area of present-day Center City, other settlements such as Kensington developed using different grids. The grid system was gradually extended to other regions of present-day Philadelphia, although several roads predating a grid system still exist. Certain neighborhoods of Philadelphia, such as those in the Far Northeast, do not use grid systems.


Broad Street, the main north–south street in Philadelphia, approaching Philadelphia City Hall
Market Street, the main east–west street in Philadelphia

When William Penn designed the street grid for the city, he named the east–west streets after trees, four of which have since been named, and the north-south streets after numbers. Major Center City streets include Broad Street, Front Street, Locust Street, and Market Street.

The naming system of the streets differs by neighborhood, although the main north–south streets are numbered in South Philadelphia, West Philadelphia, and Lower North Philadelphia similar to how they are numbered in Center City. On South Philadelphia, east–west streets use the surnames of former governors of Pennsylvania, starting with Reed Street and ending with Pattison Avenue. Several east–west streets in North Philadelphia are named after counties in Pennsylvania. Other streets are named after locally or nationally significant people. During the 20th century, several streets were renamed to honor individuals, such as John F. Kennedy Boulevard, named in tribute of former U.S. president John F. Kennedy.


The system for assigning street addresses was enacted in 1858.[2] In areas with a consistent grid, the street address numbers increase by intervals of 100s for each block,[2] starting with Front Street for east–west streets and Market Street for north–south streets. For example, 1200 South Street would refer to the intersection of 12th & South Street, and 500 North 17th Street is 5 blocks north of Market Street.


The Schuylkill Expressway eastbound at I-676/US 30, known as the Vine Street Expressway, in Center City

The main expressways of Philadelphia are the Delaware Expressway (I-95), which travels along the Delaware River, and the Schuylkill Expressway (I-76), paralleling the Schuylkill River for most of its route. Other expressways are the Vine Street Expressway (I-676), running between the Schuylkill Expressway and Delaware Expressway through downtown Philadelphia, the Roosevelt Expressway (US 1), a freeway portion of the Roosevelt Boulevard, and Woodhaven Road, an expressway connecting to I-95 to the south.


Delaware River[edit]

The Walt Whitman Bridge, the longest of several bridges linking Philadelphia and South Jersey

Philadelphia is connected to South Jersey across the Delaware River by four bridges, three of which are maintained by the Delaware River Port Authority. The oldest is the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, which opened in 1926, and was the world's longest suspension bridge span until the opening of the Ambassador Bridge in 1929.[3] The Benjamin Franklin Bridge connects Camden, New Jersey with Center City, thus making it a main crossing between Philadelphia and New Jersey. The Benjamin Franklin Bridge carries seven lanes of roadway, two rail lines of the PATCO Speedline, and two pedestrian walkways.

The longest bridge between Philadelphia and New Jersey is the Walt Whitman Bridge, which connects South Philadelphia to Gloucester City, New Jersey. The Walt Whitman Bridge opened in 1957, with a total length of 11,981 feet (3,652 m) and main span length of 2,000 feet (610 m). The bridge carries seven lanes of I-76, and carries approximately 120,000 vehicles per day.[citation needed]

Connecting to Northeast Philadelphia are the Betsy Ross Bridge, a six-lane bridge linking the Bridesburg neighborhood of Philadelphia with Pennsauken, New Jersey, and the Tacony–Palmyra Bridge, a three-lane drawbridge spanning the Delaware River between the Tacony neighborhood of Philadelphia and Palmyra, New Jersey.

Schuylkill River[edit]

South Street Bridge links University City with Center City

The Schuylkill River, a main tributary of the Delaware River, is crossed by 20 roads in Philadelphia. The oldest bridges were built and operated by private companies, and were initially wooden until the advent of iron and steel bridges. The Market Street Bridge, opened in 1805,[4] was the first permanent bridge across the Schuylkill River. West Philadelphia has many bridges spanning across the Schuylkill River, including three expressways. University City is connected to Center City by five surface roads.

Pedestrians and bicycling[edit]

Elfreth's Alley, one of the oldest continuously inhabited residential streets in the country

Like most larger American cities built out well before WWII, Philadelphia has a densely packed, highly walkable urban core, surrounded primarily by suburbs where single-family homes predominate. It was also an early innovator in that respect: Philly's well-known Main Line suburbs were constructed in tandem with the completion of the Main Line railroad connecting the suburbs with Center City, though at the time the Main Line primarily served as a "country home" destination for the urban elite. The city's SEPTA public transportation network offers a variety of transit options, including subways, buses, trolleys, and commuter rail. As of 2019, Philadelphia was the second most traffic-congested city in the U.S.[5]

Unlike other major East Coast cities, such as New York City and Boston, Center City Philadelphia, originally the core of Philadelphia's white-collar workforce, has seen a marked decline in jobs, as companies have gradually relocated to the suburbs. As of 2019, Center City had approximately 180,000 daily commuters from the suburbs. Center City had 23% fewer jobs as of 2021 than it did in 1970.[6] Further, an even larger percentage of Philadelphia's population reverse-commutes to jobs in the suburbs; as of 2018, at least 260,000 people did so each week, and 41% of the city's population is employed in its suburbs.[7]

In 2020 and 2021, SEPTA ridership plummeted 85% as a result of quarantining and stay-at-home orders.[8] While its ridership increased significantly in 2022, SEPTA still has less than half of its annual pre-COVID ridership.[9]

Unlike most other large American cities, Philadelphia has no network of dock less e-scooters available to rent. The city has greatly expanded its network of bike lanes, however, and its Indego docked-bike sharing network – which debuted in 2015 with 60 stations and 600 bikes – now has 213 stations and a total of 2,200 bikes, including some electric-assist versions introduced in 2019.[10]

Underground transit concourse[edit]

The underground concourse near Suburban Station

Philadelphia has a 3.5-mile (5.6 km)[11] underground transit concourse in Center City, which connects the SEPTA Regional Rail lines with local rail and trolley lines. Throughout the entire concourse are underground entrances to adjacent buildings, as well as the "MetroMarket," a group of small shops and eateries near Suburban Station. Within the underground concourse, it is possible to walk between 8th Street & Market and 18th Street & JFK Boulevard, or from City Hall to Locust Street.


The Schuylkill River Trail
An Indego bike share

Philadelphia has several multi-use river trails. A segment of the Schuylkill River Trail passes along the Schuylkill River from Locust Street northward to Valley Forge, near the King of Prussia mall. In Philadelphia, most of the trail runs through Fairmount Park. The trail to Valley Forge totals 10.5 miles (16.9 km),[12] and when completed, will total 140 miles (230 km) to Hamburg, Pennsylvania.

The Wissahickon Trail branches off from the Schuylkill River Trail and runs along the Wissahickon Creek, terminating near Germantown Avenue. The Pennypack Trail runs along the Pennypack Creek, from the Delaware River to Fox Chase Farm. Sections of the Cobbs Creek and Tacony Creek also have trails.


SEPTA buses[edit]

SEPTA lists 117 bus routes[13] throughout Southeastern Pennsylvania, with most routes being within Philadelphia. Some of SEPTA's bus routes run 24 hours a day ("Night Owl" service), although most routes end by late night. SEPTA's bus service consists of its City Division routes within Philadelphia and parts of the suburbs and Suburban Division routes in the suburbs. The Suburban Division consists of the Victory ("Red Arrow") District for routes in Chester, Delaware, and Montgomery Counties, and the Frontier District for buses in Chester, Montgomery, and Bucks Counties. Other bus routes are its Regional Rail connector routes, the "Night Owl" bus service replacing the Market-Frankford and Broad Street subway lines during their closure, and other specialized services. SEPTA leases buses for third-party charter routes, and runs the charter buses for the School District of Philadelphia.

The City Transit Division runs 76 bus routes (including three trackless trolley routes), and the Suburban Division runs 44 bus routes. In 2009, SEPTA had a fleet of 1153 revenue buses for its City Transit Division, and 262 revenue buses for its Suburban Division.[14]

SEPTA currently operates trackless trolleys on Routes 59, 66, and 75. Routes 59 and 75 are connected to the Market-Frankford Line at Arrott Transportation Center Station, near the terminus of the Market-Frankford Line. Route 59 travels primarily along Castor Avenue through Northeast Philadelphia, and terminates at the end of Castor Avenue, near Pennypack Park. Route 75 travels along Wyoming Avenue, and connects to Wyoming Station of the Broad Street Line, ending at Wayne Junction in Nicetown. Route 66 connects to the Market-Frankford Line at the Frankford Transportation Center, and extends along Frankford Avenue to the extremity of Northeast Philadelphia.

SEPTA formerly ran trackless trolleys along Routes 29 and 79 in South Philadelphia, but replaced those services with diesel buses in 2003. In October 2006, the SEPTA board voted not to order additional vehicles for Routes 29 and 79, making them permanent diesel bus routes.[15]

NJ Transit Philadelphia-New Jersey buses[edit]

NJ Transit operates bus routes from Philadelphia to various New Jersey locations.[16]



A SEPTA bus stop sign
SEPTA bus operating along Route 7
SEPTA Route 66 trackless trolley

SEPTA is a regional public transportation authority[17] that operates bus, rapid transit, commuter rail, light rail, and electric trolleybus services for nearly 4 million people in five counties in and around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It also manages projects that maintain, replace and expand its infrastructure, facilities and vehicles.

Subway lines[edit]

63rd Street Station of the Market-Frankford Line
Broad Street Line train at City Hall station

Philadelphia has the third-oldest subway system in the United States, dating back to its opening in 1907.[18] Operated by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company until 1939[19] and the Philadelphia Transportation Company until 1968,[20] the SEPTA subway system consists of two rapid transit systems converging in Center City, and five surface level trolley lines operated in a shared subway through downtown Philadelphia.

The Market-Frankford Line and Broad Street Line combined have the sixth-highest ridership of rapid transit systems in the United States, with a daily ridership of 316,253.[21] The rapid transit system has a total length of 25 miles (40 km) and 50 stations.[21] Feeder trolley and bus systems connect to the terminals of the Market-Frankford Line. At 69th Street Transportation Center, the Norristown High Speed Line, SEPTA Route 101, and SEPTA Route 102 connect to nearby suburbs, and a large bus depot handles SEPTA suburban bus routes. Near the eastern terminus of the Market-Frankford Line, three trackless trolley lines and multiple diesel bus lines converge. In addition, several regional rail lines stop at the Fern Rock Transportation Center of the Broad Street Line.


Subway-Surface Trolley Line Route 34 vehicle traveling along Baltimore Avenue
SEPTA PCC II vehicle of SEPTA Route 15

The Subway–Surface Trolley Lines are the remnants of an extensive pre-World War II streetcar system, similar to the Boston Green Line and San Francisco Muni Metro. The trolley lines were originally run by different companies, until their consolidation by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company in 1906.[22] The trolleys run in a tunnel from the Drexel University and University of Pennsylvania campuses to a loop around City Hall. Unlike light rail systems with articulated vehicles, the trolley lines use vehicles closer in size to classic PCC streetcars.

Route 15, commonly known as the Girard Avenue Trolley, was restored in 2005 after having been operated with buses for 13 years. The 15 line runs along Girard Avenue through Greater Kensington, North Philadelphia, and West Philadelphia. The trolley utilizes restored PCC streetcars, a type of heritage trolley built in the 1930s. The trolleys were rebuilt with added air conditioning and regenerative braking.[23] Route 15 is the only active trolley line in Philadelphia that is not part of the Subway-Surface Trolley Line system.

Route Length in
miles (km)[24]
Service began Service ended Western terminus Eastern terminus Main streets of travel Depot Notes
10 5.9 (9.5) c. 1887 Overbrook: 63rd–Malvern Center City:
15th–Market (12:30-5:00am)
40th–Market (Sundays after 10pm)
13th–Market (all other times)
63rd Street, Lansdowne Avenue, Lancaster Avenue Callowhill
11 6.7 (10.8) 1858 Darby Transportation Center Woodland Avenue Elmwood
13 6.9 (11.1) Chester Avenue Elmwood Some trips terminate at Yeadon Loop in Yeadon
34 4.8 (7.7) 1890 Angora: 61st–Baltimore Baltimore Avenue Elmwood
36 7.0 (11.3) 1904 Eastwick: 80th–Eastwick Island Avenue, Elmwood Avenue Elmwood Some trips terminate at 73rd–Elmwood station in Eastwick
15 8.4 (13.5) 1859 Haddington Loop - 63rd & Girard Richmond-Westmoreland Streets Loop Girard Avenue

Regional Rail[edit]

SEPTA Regional Rail division consists of 13 lines with 153 active stations, totaling 280 miles (450 km) of trackage.[13] Each line is named by their station terminals, with the exception of the Manayunk/Norristown Line. The core of the Regional Rail system is the Center City Commuter Connection, a four-track tunnel under Center City linking three downtown stations: 30th Street Station, Suburban Station, and Jefferson Station. The Center City Commuter Connection was opened in 1984, built to connect the stub ends of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Reading Railroad commuter rail systems. All SEPTA trains stop at the three downtown stations, with the exception of the Cynwyd Line.[25] Most trains stop at Temple University station, located on the eastern edge of the Temple University campus. Because the tunnel makes the through-routing of trains possible, most inbound trains from one line continue as outbound trains on another line.

Line Total Stations Terminal Legacy
Airport Line 10 Philadelphia International Airport Pennsylvania Railroad
Wilmington/Newark Line 22 Marcus Hook, Claymont, Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware, or Newark, Delaware Pennsylvania Railroad
Media/Wawa Line 19 Media or Wawa Pennsylvania Railroad
Paoli/Thorndale Line 26 Bryn Mawr, Paoli, Malvern, or Thorndale Pennsylvania Railroad
Cynwyd Line 3 Bala Cynwyd Pennsylvania Railroad
Trenton Line 15 Trenton, New Jersey Pennsylvania Railroad
Chestnut Hill West Line 10 Chestnut Hill (Philadelphia) Pennsylvania Railroad
Warminster Line 17 Glenside or Warminster Reading Railroad
West Trenton Line 23 Ewing, New Jersey Reading Railroad
Lansdale/Doylestown Line 28 Lansdale, Colmar, or Doylestown Reading Railroad
Manayunk/Norristown Line 16 Norristown Reading Railroad
Chestnut Hill East Line 14 Chestnut Hill (Philadelphia) Reading Railroad
Fox Chase Line 10 Fox Chase (Philadelphia) Reading Railroad

PATCO Speedline[edit]

A PATCO Speedline train eastbound at 8th Street station

The PATCO Speedline is a grade-separated system linking Philadelphia to the cities of Camden, Haddonfield, and Lindenwold in New Jersey. The Speedline has a daily ridership of 38,000,[26] and is the primary transit link between South Jersey and Philadelphia. It is operated by the Port Authority Transit Corporation, a subsidiary of the Delaware River Port Authority (DRPA), and is the only rail line in Philadelphia to operate 24 hours a day during the week. According to a study conducted by the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, 95% of riders are New Jersey residents, and the Speedline carries 47% of New Jersey business commuters with jobs in Center City.[27]

NJ Transit Atlantic City Line[edit]

NJ Transit operates the Atlantic City Line from 30th Street Station to Atlantic City, New Jersey. Historically run by the Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines, the current line opened in 1989 by Amtrak as the "Gambler's Express" and has been operated solely by NJ Transit since 1996.[28] The line has six intermediate stops in New Jersey, with 13-16 departures in each direction per day.[29]

Amtrak Intercity Rail[edit]

30th Street Station, the main intercity railroad station of Philadelphia and third-busiest Amtrak station in the nation

Intercity train service is operated out of 30th Street Station by Amtrak. Amtrak runs most services along the electrified Northeast Corridor, serving a densely urbanized string of cities in the Northeastern United States. Amtrak runs at least 53 trains each weekday on its busiest route: Philadelphia to New York City.[30][31] Regular train service along the Northeast Corridor consists of the Acela Express, a high-speed train between Boston and Washington, D.C., and the Northeast Regional, a local service with northern terminals of either Boston, or Springfield, Massachusetts (using a diesel locomotive), and southern terminals of Washington, D.C., Newport News or Lynchburg, Virginia.[32] Amtrak runs several long-distance rail routes along the Northeast Corridor, including night trains. Long-distance trains run primarily on tracks owned and maintained by private freight railroads, and serve 39 states including the District of Columbia.[33]

Amtrak operates two routes along the Keystone Corridor, connecting Philadelphia to Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. The Keystone Corridor consists of two different segments: the section between Harrisburg and Philadelphia, and the segment west of Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. The eastern segment of the line, owned by Amtrak, is fully electrified and almost completely grade separated. The Philadelphia to Harrisburg section was upgraded to allow for top speeds of 110 miles per hour (180 km/h).[34] The section west of Harrisburg is a heavy-duty freight railroad owned by Norfork Southern. Regular service on the Keystone Corridor consists of the Keystone Service, which travels between Harrisburg and Philadelphia. After stopping in Philadelphia, certain trains continue along the Northeast Corridor to New York. The western section traverses mountainous terrain, and has obstacles limiting track speeds such as the Horseshoe Curve. The Pennsylvanian, consisting of one train in each direction per day, is the only route between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

Frequent service routes[edit]

Train Terminals Frequency[30] Stations Route length
Acela Express Boston Washington 16 trains per weekday 16 456 miles (734 km)
Keystone Service New York Harrisburg 8-10 trains per weekday 21 195 miles (314 km)
Philadelphia Harrisburg 3-5 trains per weekday 12 104 miles (167 km)
Northeast Regional Boston Washington 17-21 trains per day 30 456 miles (734 km)
Springfield Washington 1-2 trains per day 28 364 miles (586 km)

Daily and nightly routes[edit]

Train Terminals Frequency[31] Stations Route length
Cardinal New York Chicago 3 trains per week 32 1,147 miles (1,846 km)
Carolinian New York Charlotte Daily 24 704 miles (1,133 km)
Crescent New York New Orleans Daily 33 1,377 miles (2,216 km)
Palmetto New York Savannah Daily 20 829 miles (1,334 km)
Pennsylvanian New York Pittsburgh Daily 19 444 miles (715 km)
Silver Meteor New York Miami Daily 32 1,389 miles (2,235 km)
Silver Star New York Miami Daily 36 1,522 miles (2,449 km)
Vermonter St. Albans Washington Daily 30 611 miles (983 km)

Water transportation[edit]

Philadelphia Naval Shipyard[edit]

The former Philadelphia Naval Shipyard is located at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. The facility was used as a shipyard for the U.S. Navy until the cessation of military activities on September 27, 1996. The Naval Yard saw extensive use during World War II, when the yard employed a peak of 58,434 civilians and built 53 ships,[35][36] including the USS New Jersey and USS Wisconsin.

Aker Philadelphia Shipyard[edit]

Shipbuilding facility of Aker Philadelphia Shipyard

After the conversion of the Naval Yard for civilian uses, the Norwegian company Kværner rebuilt the western facility for commercial shipbuilding operations in partnership with the City of Philadelphia. Now called the Aker Philadelphia Shipyard, the yard opened in 2000 and delivered its first vessel in 2003.[37] The Aker Shipyard has built twelve ships, and has four vessels under construction.[38]

Port of Philadelphia[edit]

Since 1990, The Port of Philadelphia has been operated by the Philadelphia Regional Port Authority, a state agency created to fund the port infrastructure. The busiest facility of the Port of Philadelphia is the Packer Avenue Marine Terminal, located north of the Walt Whitman Bridge. The facility is serviced by three class-one railroads: CP Rail, CSX, and Norfolk Southern,[39] and is located in close proximity to I-95 and I-76.

The Tioga Marine Terminal, located south of the Betsy Ross Bridge, has specialized equipment for handling Chilean fruit and Argentine juice.[40] The Port of Philadelphia is one of the Strategic Military Ports of the U.S. Department of Defense, making it one of only 14 ports in the United States permitted to handle the nation's military cargo.[41]

Cruise Ship Terminal[edit]

The Delaware River Port Authority operates a cruise ship terminal at Pier One of the Philadelphia Naval Business Center.[42] No cruise lines are based at the terminal as of 2010, although two cruise lines have scheduled stops in Philadelphia.[43]

The terminal handled a peak of 35 sailings in 2006,[44] when the Norwegian Majesty was based at the terminal before it was sold.[45]

RiverLink Ferry[edit]

The RiverLink Ferry is a passenger ferry that connects Penn's Landing with the Camden, NJ waterfront across the Delaware River. The ferry provides a way for tourists to reach waterfront attractions on both sides of the river, and it is managed by Hornblower Marine Services for the Delaware River Port Authority.[46]

Vehicles for hire[edit]

Uber entered the Philadelphia market in June 2012 as a chauffeured limousine service.[47] UberX, which connects riders to drivers, began operating in Philadelphia in October 2014.[48]

Public transportation statistics[edit]

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Philadelphia, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 93 min. 35% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 16 min, while 27% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 10.3 km, while 27% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[49]


Philadelphia International Airport[edit]

A US Airways plane docked at Terminal B of Philadelphia International Airport

Philadelphia International Airport (PHL) is the largest airport in the Philadelphia region and the 11th-busiest airport in the world in 2008 in terms of traffic movements.[50] Most of PHL is located in Philadelphia proper, while the international terminal and the western end of the airfield are located in Tinicum Township.[51]

Philadelphia International Airport is a domestic hub and the primary international hub of American Airlines. American Airlines uses Terminal A West, the international terminal, for flights to Europe and the Caribbean.[52] Terminals B and C are used exclusively for domestic American Airlines flights,[52] and American Eagle regional flights use Terminal F.[52] Southwest Airlines, a major domestic low-cost airline, began flights to PHL in 2004 despite its business model of utilizing secondary airports. Southwest Airlines operates its flights from Terminal E along with several other airlines.[52] UPS Airlines operates a regional freight hub at the airport.

PHL is connected to Center City by the SEPTA Airport Line, which has four stations throughout the airport and travels to 30th Street Station, Suburban Station, and Jefferson Station in downtown Philadelphia. There is also taxi service to the airport.[53]

Northeast Philadelphia Airport[edit]

Northeast Philadelphia Airport, located in the Ashton-Woodenbridge neighborhood of Northeast Philadelphia, is used for general aviation flights. It is the sixth busiest airport in Pennsylvania,[54] and has two runways. In 2006, the airport had an average of 289 aircraft operations per day, and 203 aircraft based at the airport.[55]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Mihaly, Mark. Insiders' Guide to Philadelphia, 2007, p. 17.
  2. ^ a b Do other cities have logical street numbering systems like Chicago's?, Straight Dope Chicago, August 20, 2009.
  3. ^ Celebrating 80 Years Archived November 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Delaware River Port Authority.
  4. ^ pprint of Aitken, Jane. A Statistical Account of the Schuylkill Permanent Bridge, Commenced September 5th 1801, Opened January 1st, 1805, 1807. (p.67)
  5. ^ "INRIX: Downtown Travel Plummets 44% in 2020 amid COVID-19 Pandemic". INRIX. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  6. ^ "What Will Happen to Center City If Commuters Never Return?". Philadelphia Magazine. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  7. ^ "What Will Happen to Center City If Commuters Never Return". Philadelphia Magazine. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  8. ^ "What Will Happen to Center City If Commuters Never Return?". Philadelphia Magazine. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  9. ^ "Annual number of paid passengers transported by the Philadelphia transit authority (SEPTA) from 2012 to 2022". Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  10. ^ "Philly bike share Indego details expansion plans after eight years of operations". WHYY. NPR. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  11. ^ Pressroom, Center City District/Central Philadelphia Development Corporation.
  12. ^ First Map Paths, Schuylkill River Trail.
  13. ^ a b SEPTA Media Guide
  14. ^ SEPTA Operating Facts, SEPTA. Accurate as of fiscal year 2009 (year ended 6/30/09). Archived November 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Trolleybus Magazine No. 280 (July-Aug. 2008), p. 95.
  16. ^ "City Pass – Philly".
  17. ^ "SEPTA Enabling Legislation (74PaCS§1711)". Pennsylvania Legis website.
  18. ^ Jackson, Joseph. Market street, Philadelphia: the most historic highway in America, its merchants and its story, 1918, p. 201.
  19. ^ Springirth, Kenneth C. Suburban Philadelphia Trolleys, 2007, p. 9.
  20. ^ Springirth, Kenneth C. Suburban Philadelphia Trolleys, 2007, p. 73.
  21. ^ a b American Public Transportation Association, Public Transit Ridership Report, Third Quarter 2009.
  22. ^ Springirth, Kenneth C. Southeastern Pennsylvania Trolleys, 2008, p. 91.
  23. ^ "Philadelphia's PCCs Return to Service." Railway Age. Vol. 205, No. 10, p. 30. October 1, 2005.
  24. ^ "SEPTA - Spring 2012 Route Statistics" (PDF). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority. 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  25. ^ SEPTA Regional Rail,
  26. ^ "Card makes change for PATCO riders" by Eileen Stilwell, Courier-Post, July 11, 2006, retrieved July 11, 2006
  27. ^ PATCO History, Delaware River Port Authority.
  28. ^ Atlantic City Line,
  29. ^ Atlantic City Line Master File, NJ Transit. Updated November 8, 2009.
  30. ^ a b Northeast Corridor Timetable, Amtrak, effective January 18, 2010.
  31. ^ a b Amtrak System Timetable, Amtrak, Fall 2009/Winter 2010.
  32. ^ Amtrak - Northeast Regional
  33. ^ Amtrak: Long Distance Trains: FY 2008
  34. ^ Q&A with Amtrak President Alex Kummant, Reuters.
  35. ^ The Society. History of civil engineering and construction in the Delaware Valley, 1976, p. 157.
  36. ^ Dorwart, Jeffery M. and Wolf, Jean K. The Philadelphia Navy Yard: from the birth of the U.S. Navy to the nuclear age, 2001, p. 179-180.
  37. ^ History, Aker Philadelphia Shipyard Inc.
  38. ^ Aker Philadelphia Shipyard Delivers Eighth Product Tanker, Aker Philadelphia Shipyard Inc, December 12, 2009.
  39. ^ Packer Avenue Marine Terminal, Philadelphia Regional Port Authority.
  40. ^ Tioga Marine Terminal Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Delaware River Stevedores, Inc.
  41. ^ PRPA: History, Philadelphia Regional Port Authority.
  42. ^ Philadelphia Cruise Port and Terminal, Philadelphia Cruise Guide.
  43. ^ Loyd, Linda. Philly has hopes to regain lost cruise business, The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 23, 2009. "The Delaware River Port Authority's 2010 budget shows no cruises are booked at the Philadelphia Cruise Terminal at the Navy Yard, although two cruise lineswill have port calls here next year."
  44. ^ Loyd, Linda. Philly has hopes to regain lost cruise business, The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 23, 2009. "The cruise business has tailed off from a peak of 35 sailings in 2006 and 32 in 2005 to only eight this year."
  45. ^ Loyd, Linda. Philly has hopes to regain lost cruise business, The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 23, 2009. "In 2008, Norwegian Cruise Line's Majesty made Philadelphia its home, offering 10 sailings that year and eight in 2009. But the Majesty was recently sold."
  46. ^ "New Delaware River ferry tours set to begin", Philadelphia Business Journal, May 31, 2005
  47. ^ "Uber Launches in Philly TODAY, Though We Have No Idea Why". Curbed Philly. June 6, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  48. ^ "UberX marks a year operating illegally in Philadelphia". philly-archives. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  49. ^ "Philadelphia Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  50. ^ Traffic Movements 2008 Final from Airports Council International
  51. ^ Airport authority bill draws support, ire, Delaware County Daily Times, January 14, 2010.
  52. ^ a b c d PHL Map Archived March 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Philadelphia International Airport.
  53. ^ Taxis & Trains Archived February 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine,
  54. ^ Philadelphia Airport System. "Philadelphia Northeast Airport". City of Philadelphia. Archived from the original on April 17, 2009.
  55. ^ FAA Airport Form 5010 for PNE PDF, effective June 5, 2008

External links[edit]